And with dive brakes, you could have done that."[57]. Operational performance and deployment of ME-262. [85][86], About 1,400 planes were produced, but a maximum of 200 were operational at any one time. By that time, problems with engine development had slowed production of the aircraft considerably. German engineers introduced an automatic throttle regulator later in the war but it only partly alleviated the problem. In most cases, the Me 262's high speed made it nearly invulnerable to a bomber's guns. Fuel was usually J2 (derived from brown coal), with the option of diesel or a mixture of oil and high octane B4 aviation petrol. ", "Me.262 Heimatschützer IV. General characteristics. [17] To expedite construction, save weight and use less strategic materials, late in the war, wing interiors were not painted. Even from astern, the closing speed was too great to use the short-ranged quartet of MK 108 cannon to maximum effect. [citation needed], The Me 262 was difficult to counter because its high speed and rate of climb made it hard to intercept. At B8 Bergkristall-Esche II, a vast network of tunnels was excavated beneath St. Georgen/Gusen, Austria, where slave labourers of concentration camp Gusen II produced fully equipped fuselages for the Me 262 at a monthly rate of 450 units on large assembly lines from early 1945. Bölkow, L. "Mit dem Pfeilflügel zum Hochgeschwindigkeitsflug.". Sweep, uncommon at the time, was added after the initial design of the aircraft. After the successful test flights of the world's first jet aircraft—the Heinkel He 178—within a week of the invasion of Poland to start the war, they adopted the jet engine for an advanced fighter aircraft. [25], Testing showed that the ME262 handled much better than previous fighters such as the BF-109 or FW-190. Though best remembered as a late-war weapon, the design of the Messerschmitt Me 262 began prior to World War II in April 1939. [16] The elliptical nose derivatives of the NACA airfoils were used on the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces. Design of the new aircraft was directed by Dr. Waldemar Voigt with oversight from Messerschmitt's chief of development, Robert Lusser. Now, in two seconds, you can't sight. Though German production of the Me 262 ended with the conclusion of the war, the Czechoslovak government continued building the aircraft as the Avia S-92 and CS-92. 540 Squadron RAF PR Squadron, which was allegedly lost in a crash upon landing at an air base in Italy. The coarse opening of the throttle would cause fuel surging and lead to excessive jet pipe temperatures. As well as the flak guns, several piston engine fighter units based in the area were tasked to cover the jets as they landed. [28] This was almost nine months ahead of the British Gloster Meteor's first flight on 5 March 1943. Also, as the Me-262 required concrete runways, Allied leaders singled out jet bases for heavy bombing with the goal of destroying the aircraft on the ground and eliminating its infrastructure. Though an improvement, the early jet engines possessed incredibly short operational lives, typically lasting only 12-25 hours. Luftwaffe airfields identified as jet bases were frequently bombed by medium bombers, and Allied fighters patrolled over the fields to attack jets trying to land. Among those becoming operational was Jagdverband 44 led by the famed Galland. For example, if you want to fight and destroy a B-17, you come in on a dive. One particularly acute problem arose with the lack of an alloy with a melting point high enough to endure the high temperatures involved, a problem that by the end of the war had not been adequately resolved. [49] The inclusion of full span automatic leading-edge slats,[Note 6] something of a "tradition" on Messerschmitt fighters dating back to the original Bf 109's outer wing slots of a similar type, helped increase the overall lift produced by the wing by as much as 35% in tight turns or at low speeds, greatly improving the aircraft's turn performance as well as its landing and takeoff characteristics. [citation needed], Pilots soon learned that the Me 262 was quite maneuverable despite its high wing loading and lack of low-speed thrust, especially if attention was drawn to its effective maneuvering speeds. This proved fortuitous as both turbojets failed during their initial flight, forcing the pilot to land using the piston engine. [18], In mid-1943, Adolf Hitler envisioned the Me 262 as a ground-attack/bomber aircraft rather than a defensive interceptor. [94] These aircraft were extensively studied, aiding development of early US, British and Soviet jet fighters. Its only major deficiency was that brakes could not be used until the nose wheel had touched down, because engaging them before would smash the nose wheel strongly into the runway, potentially destroying the nose wheel and the aircraft. [Note 2], Test flights continued over the next year, but engine problems continued to plague the project, the Jumo 004 being only marginally more reliable than the lower-thrust (7.83 kN/1,760 lbf) BMW 003. A throbbing in the wings as my cannon pounded briefly. It is also believed that a Me 262 flown by Oberleutnant Fritz Stehle scored the final aerial victory of the war for the Luftwaffe. Its handling improved with speed, and would lose much less speed during turning. Streaking above Leipheim, Messerschmitt test pilot Fritz Wendel's Me 262 beat the first Allied jet fighter, the Gloster Meteor, into the skies by about nine months. Handling was so improved over previous aircraft that a report by Major Ernst Englander stated that any BF-109 pilot could convert to the ME262 with only an hour of instruction. [1] The V1 through V4 prototype airframes all possessed what would become an uncharacteristic feature for most later jet aircraft designs, a fully retracting conventional gear setup with a retracting tailwheel—indeed, the very first prospective German "jet fighter" airframe design ever flown, the Heinkel He 280, used a retractable tricycle landing gear from its beginnings, and flying on jet power alone as early as the end of March 1941. On 1 September 1944, USAAF General Carl Spaatz expressed the fear that if greater numbers of German jets appeared, they could inflict losses heavy enough to force cancellation of the Allied bombing offensive by daylight. It is debatable to what extent Hitler's interference extended the delay in bringing the Schwalbe into operation;[19][20] it appears engine vibration issues were at least as costly, if not more so. Serving with 10. [36], Unit cost for an Me 262 airframe, less engines, armament, and electronics, was 87,400 RM. Il Messerschmitt Me 262 era un aereo militare multiruolo a reazione, bimotore turbogetto e monoplano ad ala bassa e a freccia, sviluppato dall'azienda aeronautica tedesca Messerschmitt AG negli anni quaranta. [Note 1] The Allies countered its effectiveness in the air by attacking the aircraft on the ground and during takeoff and landing. [43], Despite orders to stay grounded, Nowotny chose to fly a mission against an enemy bomber formation flying some 9,100 m (30,000 ft) above, on 8 November 1944. Me 262 , f 0 r e He 162 and 79 • 5 1b at 100 ft/sec. Testing was discontinued after four engine changes were required during the course of the tests, culminating in two single-engine landings. In the meantime, a bomber unit—I Gruppe, Kampfgeschwader 54 (KG(J) 54)—redesignated as such on 1 October 1944[47] through being re-equipped with, and trained to use the Me 262A-2a fighter-bomber for use in a ground-attack role. In January 2003, the American Me 262 Project, based in Everett, Washington, completed flight testing to allow the delivery of partially updated spec reproductions of several versions of the Me 262 including at least two B-1c two-seater variants, one A-1c single seater and two "convertibles" that could be switched between the A-1c and B-1c configurations. Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighters at Rechlin-Lärz Airfield in 1944.JPG 765 × 527; 236 KB Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe 3d drawing.svg 1,052 × 744; 563 KB Messerschmitt Me 262 V3 side-view silhouette.png 252 × 125; 3 KB [9] In the end, the Me 262 had a negligible impact on the course of the war as a result of its late introduction and the consequently small numbers put in operational service.[10]. The configuration of a high-speed, light-payload Schnellbomber ("fast bomber") was intended to penetrate enemy airspace during the expected Allied invasion of France. Maybe a wing's length away. Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (Almanca:Kırlangıç) II. The Walter 109-509.S1 Assisted Take-Off Unit. [60] This method of attacking bombers became the standard, and mass deployment of Ruhrstahl X-4 guided missiles was cancelled. Swing her round. Captured Me 262s were studied and flight tested by the major powers, and ultimately influenced the designs of post-war aircraft such as the North American F-86 Sabre, MiG-15 and Boeing B-47 Stratojet. Hitler rejected arguments the aircraft would be more effective as a fighter against the Allied bombers destroying large parts of Germany, and wanted it as a bomber for revenge attacks. [42], Major Walter Nowotny was assigned as commander after the death of Thierfelder in July 1944, and the unit redesignated Kommando Nowotny. The HG III had a conventional tail, but a 45° wing sweep and turbines embedded in the wing roots. Luftwaffe Secret Projects Fighters 1939–1945 by Walter Schick, Ingolf Meyer, Elke Weal, John Weal, messerschmitt Geheimprojekte by Willy radinger and Walter Schick, Luftwaffe Secret Projects Fighters 1939–1945 by Walter Schick, Ingolf Meyer, Elke Weal, John Weal p. 85, ME-262 A-1 Pilot's Handbook, T2 Airforce Material Command, Wright Field Dayton Ohio, Learn how and when to remove this template message, National Museum of the United States Air Force, South African National Museum of Military History, "Luftwaffe Resource Center – Fighters/Destroyers – A Warbirds Resource Group Site", "Messerschmitt Me 262 A-1a Schwalbe (Swallow)", "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft, Part II: The Jet Age, Chapter 11: Early Jet Fighters, Pioneer jet Fighters. Essentially a trials and development unit, it mounted the world's first jet fighter operations. Me 262 pilots developed several tactics for striking Allied bombers. ", Specifications (Messerschmitt Me 262 A-1a). His edict resulted in the development of (and concentration on) the Sturmvogel variant. During operations between 28 April and 1 May Soviet fighters and ground fire downed at least ten more Me 262s from JG 7. According to Stapfer, the smaller fuel tank had a capacity of up to 237.75 US gallons (197.97 imperial gallons; 900.0 litres). [79], Adolf Busemann had proposed swept wings as early as 1935; Messerschmitt researched the topic from 1940. Flightradar24 is a global flight tracking service that provides you with real-time information about thousands of aircraft around the world. Airframe modifications were complete by 1942 but, hampered by the lack of engines, serial production did not begin until 1944, and deliveries were low, with 28 Me 262s in June, 59 in July, but only 20 in August. Kennedy Hickman is a historian, museum director, and curator who specializes in military and naval history. The Me 262 is often referred to as a "swept wing" design as the production aircraft had a small, but significant leading edge sweep of 18.5° which likely provided an advantage by increasing the critical Mach number. The Me-262 Schwalbe (Swallow) was the first jet-powered aircraft to enter aerial combat. ", "Me 163B Komet – Me 163 Production – Me 163B: Werknummern list. On the evening of 27 April, thirty-six Me 262s from JG 7, III.KG(J)6 and KJ(J)54 were sent against Soviet forces that were attacking German troops in the forests north-east of Baruth. The resulting steepening of the dive would lead to even higher speeds and the airframe would disintegrate from excessive negative g loads. [50], Several two-seat trainer variants of the Me 262, the Me 262 B-1a, had been adapted through the Umrüst-Bausatz 1 factory refit package as night fighters, complete with on-board FuG 218 Neptun high-VHF band radar, using Hirschgeweih ("stag's antlers") antennae with a set of dipole elements shorter than the Lichtenstein SN-2 had used, as the B-1a/U1 version. In its brightest moments, when it was used as intended, the Me 262 was the equivalent of sending the “Three Musketeers” against Sitting Bull at Little Big Horn. Among methods preferred by pilots were diving and attacking with the Me 262's four 30mm cannons and approaching from a bomber's side and firing R4M rockets at long range. According to his report, even bomber pilots who converted to fly the ME262 only required three instruction flights, and less than 5% had any difficulty retraining. Testing in this manner continued for over a year and it was not until July 18, 1942, that the Me 262 (Prototype V3) flew as "pure" jet. The Messerschmitt Me 262-page contains all related products, articles, books, walkarounds and plastic scale modeling projects dedicated to this aircraft.. It is intended as an interceptor, climbing very quickly under the power of the booster rocket combined with its two jet engines. This topic is categorised under: Aircraft » Jets » Messerschmitt Me 262 As the two-seat trainer was largely unavailable, many pilots made their first jet flight in a single-seater without an instructor. The Me-262 was developed and built in Germany by the Nazis and was their first operational jet fighter in World War 2. Though this was not implemented, he continued with the projected HG II and HG III (Hochgeschwindigkeit, "high-speed") derivatives in 1944, designed with a 35° and 45° wing sweep, respectively. With the activation of additional squadrons, the Luftwaffe was finally able to mount large Me 262 assaults on Allied bomber formations. 92–93. [32] However, the Jumo 004A engine proved unsuitable for full-scale production because of its considerable weight and its high utilization of strategic material (Ni, Co, Mo), which were in short supply. Another candidate for top ace on the aircraft was Oberstleutnant Heinrich Bär, who is credited with 16 enemy aircraft[54] while flying Me262s out of his total of 240 aircraft shot down. [citation needed]. Due to this issue, the early decision to move the engines from the wing roots into pods proved fortuitous. [71][72] On 7 October 1944, Lt. Urban Drew of the 365th Fighter Group shot down two Me 262s that were taking off, while on the same day Lt. Col. Hubert Zemke, who had transferred to the Mustang equipped 479th Fighter Group, shot down what he thought was a Bf 109, only to have his gun camera film reveal that it may have been an Me 262. [11], Plans were first drawn up in April 1939, and the original design was very different from the aircraft that eventually entered service, with wing root-mounted engines,[11] rather than podded ones, when submitted in June 1939. me-262 schwalbe (kırlangıç) hava muharebesine giren ilk jet uçağıdır. [citation needed], As the Me 262A's pioneering Junkers Jumo 004 axial-flow jet engines needed careful nursing by their pilots, these jet aircraft were particularly vulnerable during takeoff and landing. As the Me 262 was refined, the BMW 003 engines were abandoned due to poor performance and replaced by the Junkers Jumo 004. After the war, the Royal Aircraft Establishment, at that time one of the leading institutions in high-speed research, re-tested the Me 262 to help with British attempts at exceeding Mach 1. In the head-on attack, the combined closing speed of about 320 m/s (720 mph) was too high for accurate shooting, with ordnance that could only fire about 44 shells a second (650 rounds/min from each cannon) in total from the quartet of them. The total engine represented a design compromise to minimize the use of strategic materials and to simplify manufacture. [6] Several aircraft survive on static display in museums, and there are several privately built flying reproductions that use modern General Electric J85 engines. The final appearance of 262s over Volkel was in 1945 when yet another fell to 2809's guns. [29] The aforementioned initial four prototypes (V1-V4) were built with the conventional gear configuration. The projected HG II combined the low-drag canopy with a 35° wing sweep and a V-tail (butterfly tail). Consequently, the 004B engine was designed to use a minimum amount of strategic materials. A unit of select Luftwaffe pilots, JV 44 began flying in February 1945. They were introduced in 1947 and in 1950 were supplied to the 5th Fighter Squadron, becoming the first jet fighters to serve in the Czechoslovak Air Force. The Me-262 did have a significant influence on the later stages of the war. Additionally, the aircraft that would become the world's first operational jet fighter received mixed support as many influential Luftwaffe officers who felt that the approaching conflict could be won by piston-engine aircraft, such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109, alone. Overall development was slowed due to continued issues with the jet engines and administrative interference. A prick of doubt: is this really such a good fighter? Frank Whittle concludes in his final assessment over the two engines: "it was in the quality of high temperature materials that the difference between German and British engines was most marked"[35], Operationally, carrying 2,000 litres (440 imperial gallons; 530 US gallons) of fuel in two 900-litre (200-imperial-gallon; 240-US-gallon) tanks, one each fore and aft of the cockpit; and a 200-litre (44-imperial-gallon; 53-US-gallon) ventral fuselage tank beneath,[Note 3] the Me 262 would have a total flight endurance of 60 to 90 minutes. The Stormbird variant was designed at Hitler's insistence. Developed from a 1938 design by the Messerschmitt company, the Me 262 Schwalbe was the world's first operational turbojet aircraft. To cope with the new German threat, the Allies developed a variety of anti-jet tactics. The "c" suffix refers to the new CJ610 powerplant and has been informally assigned with the approval of the Messerschmitt Foundation in Germany[96] (the Werknummer of the reproductions picked up where the last wartime produced Me 262 left off – a continuous airframe serial number run with a near 60-year production break). Through the end of February to the end of March 1945, approximately sixty Me 262s were destroyed in attacks on Obertraubling and thirty at Leipheim;[87] the Neuburg jet plant itself was bombed on 19 March 1945. [37][Note 4] To build one airframe took around 6,400-man-hours. Of that total, fewer than 300 were actually used in combat. Another banked right in front of the Me's nose. This use of a piston engine was the result of ongoing delays with the aircraft's intended twin BMW 003 turbojets. Üretime geçilmiş ve aktif olarak hava savaşlarında kullanılmış ilk jet olarak bilinir. Dünya Savaşının sonlarına doğru üretilmiş ve savaşta aktif görev almış çift jet motorlu alman savaş uçağıdır. Data from:'Messerschmitt Me 262A Schwalbe[100][111], A series of reproductions was constructed by American company Legend Flyers (later Me 262 Project) of Everett, Washington. [37], On 19 April 1944, Erprobungskommando 262 was formed at Lechfeld just south of Augsburg, as a test unit (Jäger Erprobungskommando Thierfelder, commanded by Hauptmann Werner Thierfelder)[3][40] to introduce the 262 into service and train a corps of pilots to fly it. Another disadvantage that pioneering jet aircraft of the World War II era shared, was the high risk of compressor stall and if throttle movements were too rapid, the engine(s) could suffer a flameout. One effort on March 18 saw 37 Me 262s strike a formation of 1,221 Allied bombers. Development problems, CIOS XXIV-6 "Gas Turbine Development: BMW-Junkers-Daimler-Benz" London, 1946 p. 24, Sir Frank Whittle, Jet: the Story of a Pioneer (1953) pp. The controls were light and effective right up to the maximum permissible speed and perfectly harmonised. With the end of hostilities in May 1945, the Allied powers scrambled to claim the remaining Me 262s. The Soviets, British and Americans wished to evaluate the technology, particularly the engines. [26]. In the years after the war, Me 262s were used in high-speed testing. He initially designed the wing using NACA airfoils modified with an elliptical nose section. These sheets are specifically fitted to the new Trumpeter 262 kit; please note that decals simply blown up from 1/48 scale will not fit your Trumpeter model well. Other aircraft based there included Bf 109 and Fw 190-day fighters and. In the fight, the Me 262s downed twelve bombers in exchange for four jets. Changing to a tricycle arrangement—a permanently fixed undercarriage on the fifth prototype (V5, code PC+UE), with the definitive fully retractable nosewheel gear on the V6 (with Stammkennzeichen code VI+AA, from a new code block) and subsequent aircraft corrected this problem. Wings were produced in Germany's oldest motorway tunnel at Engelberg, to the west of Stuttgart. Galland was able to draw into the unit many of the most experienced and decorated Luftwaffe fighter pilots from other units grounded by lack of fuel.[48]. The values we 6 respectively. In the last days of the war, Me 262s from JG 7 and other units were committed in ground assault missions, in an attempt to support German troops fighting Red Army forces. Eventually, German pilots developed new combat tactics to counter Allied bombers' defences. [51] Intercepts were generally or entirely made using Wilde Sau methods, rather than AI radar-controlled interception. More about the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet. )[23] On 1 March 1940, instead of moving the wing backward on its mount, the outer wing was re-positioned slightly aft; the trailing edge of the midsection of the wing remained unswept. To support this attack, on 24 April, JG 7 dispatched thirty-one Me 262s on a strafing mission in the Cottbus-Bautzen area. ", "New Me-262 Reproduction lands at the Museum. Faster than any Allied fighter, production of the Me 262 became a priority for the Luftwaffe. Highlighted in this image is the engine of the Messerschmitt Me 262 A-1a. The American Me-262 Project was launched in January 2003 in Washington (Everett) and the aim was to try to reproduce a few versions of the Me-262. Due to this change and the increased weight of the engines, the aircraft's wings were swept back to accommodate the new center of gravity. [89] Gusen II was known as one of the harshest concentration camps; the typical life expectancy was six months. Although the aircraft was designed only to break speed records, it was hoped that its name would associate it with the Bf 109 already in combat service. [59] Most of those so equipped were Me 262A-1a models, members of Jagdgeschwader 7. 1945. The Me 262 appeared to have a higher critical Mach number than any American fighter. On 18 March 1945, thirty-seven Me 262s of JG 7 intercepted a force of 1,221 bombers and 632 escorting fighters. The Stormbird variant was designed at Hitler's insistence. So you normally came in at 600 yards [550 m; 1,800 ft] and would open fire on your B-17. "[75] Some were destroyed with a tactic known to the Tempest 135 Wing as the "Rat Scramble":[76] Tempests on immediate alert took off when an Me 262 was reported airborne. Dive tests determined that the Me 262 went out of control in a dive at Mach 0.86, and that higher Mach numbers would cause a nose-down trim that the pilot could not counter. As a result, the Me 262 was already under development as Projekt 1065 (P.1065) before the start of World War II.Plans were first d… [14], The project aerodynamicist on the design of the Me 262 was Ludwig Bölkow. They shot down 12 bombers and one fighter for the loss of three Me 262s. [92] The Me 262 had a shorter range than the Meteor and had less reliable engines. As a practice, escorting fighters began flying high over the bombers so that they could quickly dive on German jets. [citation needed], Allied pilots soon found that the only reliable way to destroy the jets, as with the even faster Me 163B Komet rocket fighters, was to attack them on the ground or during takeoff or landing. According to Speer, Hitler felt its superior speed compared to other fighters of the era meant it could not be attacked, and so preferred it for high altitude straight flying. Luftwaffe pilots claimed six lorries and seven Soviet aircraft, but three German jets were lost. All are powered by General Electric CJ610 engines and feature additional safety features, such as upgraded brakes and strengthened landing gear. And on 8 May, at around 4:00 p.m. Oblt. Description. Taken over by Major Walter Nowotny in July, it was renamed, Kommando Nowotny. [115], Data from Quest for Performance[22] Original Messerschmitt documents[121], Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era, World's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft, "I passed one that looked as if it was hanging motionless in the air (I am too fast!).

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